General Court Martial (GCM) In a profound and momentous pronouncement, the Supreme Court, in the case of Union of India & Ors. Vs. P.S. Gill, Criminal Appeal No. 404 of 2013, rendered on November 27, 2019, unequivocally established that an order convening a General Court Martial (GCM) can be contested before an Armed Forces Tribunal (AFT).

The Union of India approached the apex court in disagreement with the AFT’s decision, arguing that the order convening the GCM was not appealable before the Tribunal. They contended that the jurisdiction of the Tribunal solely pertains to the adjudication of complaints and disputes related to service matters and appeals arising from Court Martial verdicts. However, this plea did not find favor with the court, as it resolutely clarified the matter, putting all speculations to rest.

General Court Martial and the Judgement

The pivotal ruling commences in the first paragraph of the judgment, authored by Justice L Nageswara Rao and Justice Hemant Gupta, where it is observed that, “The Union of India appeals against the judgment of the Armed Forces Tribunal, Principal Bench, New Delhi (hereinafter, ‘the Tribunal’) quashing the order dated 23.02.2010 by which General Court Martial was convened against the Respondent.”

Facts Of the Case and General Court Martial (GCM)

To recapitulate, the second paragraph highlights, “In 2005, the Chief of the Army Staff initiated an inquiry into allegations of irregularities in ration procurement, compromising troop supplies. A Court of Inquiry was convened on 10.10.2005 by the General Officer Commanding-in-Chief (GOC-in-C) Western Command to identify those responsible. The Court of Inquiry found twelve Army personnel prima facie responsible for the improprieties.”

The Respondent, Chief Director of Purchase (CDP) at the Army Purchase Organization, Ministry of Defence, was among the twelve implicated individuals. The GOC-in-C, Western Command, initiated disciplinary action against the Respondent on 14.06.2006, which the Respondent challenged in the Delhi High Court. The High Court, on 11.01.2007, quashed the Court of Inquiry, citing a violation of Rule 180 of the Army Rules.

Subsequently, the Appellants were given two options: either conduct a fresh Court of Inquiry complying with Rule 180 or proceed directly under Rule 22 without relying on the previous inquiry. They chose the latter, and the Respondent filed a Writ Petition challenging the Chief of the Army Staff’s order, which was dismissed on 03.10.2008 by the Delhi High Court.

In para 3, it is revealed, “A hearing of the charge under Rule 22 against the Respondent was convened on 08.12.2008, and recording of summary of evidence under Rule 23 of the Army Rules was ordered against the Respondent on 24.12.2008. The Commanding Officer of the Respondent, General Officer Commanding (GOC), 15 Infantry Division, found no prima facie offense against the Respondent, and this view was upheld by the GOC, 15 Corps, on 28.04.2009. However, invoking Section 123 of the Army Act, 1950, the Appellants continued the proceedings against the Respondent.”

The GOC-in-C, Western Command, after examining the matter and recommendations from the GOC, 15 Infantry Division, and GOC, 15 Corps, concluded that a prima facie case existed against the Respondent. The Respondent attempted to challenge the GOC-in-C’s findings but without success. Consequently, the General Court Martial was convened by a letter dated 23.02.2010. The Respondent filed O.A. No. 147 of 2010, challenging the validity of the GCM’s convening order and seeking to quash the proceedings, summary of evidence, and the GOC-in-C’s conclusion. He also questioned the invocation of Section 123 of the Army Act, enabling the continuation of proceedings after his retirement, and sought promotion to the rank of Major General along with his batchmates.

In para 4, it is stated, “The Tribunal held that a prima facie case to proceed against the Respondent by a General Court Martial was not made out. The Tribunal opined that even if the entirety of evidence of the prosecution is taken as true, no offense was established against the Respondent. The Appellants sought leave to Appeal under Section 31 of the Armed Forces Tribunal Act, 2007 (hereinafter, ‘the Act’) to approach this Court, but their plea was rejected. Aggrieved by the Tribunal’s judgment, the present Appeal was filed.”

Point of Law and General Court Martial (GCM)

Importantly, para 13 mentions, “It is pertinent to note that the O.A. was filed under Sections 14 and 15 of the Act. Section 15 grants the Tribunal jurisdiction and power to entertain appeals against any order, decision, finding, or sentence passed by a Court Martial.”

Elaborating on Section 14 in para 15, it clarifies, “Section 14 enables a person aggrieved to apply to the Tribunal in any service matter. ‘Service matters’ are defined in Section 3 (o) to encompass all matters related to the conditions of service, including termination of service. The present case does not involve exclusions under this definition.”

Moreover, para 16 emphasizes, “Any matter related to the conditions of service falls within the definition of ‘service matters’ under Section 3 (o) of the Act and can be the subject of an application before the Tribunal. ‘Conditions of service’ refer to the regulations governing a person’s post from appointment to retirement and beyond, including pension. Thus, conditions of service also encompass dismissal from service.”

In para 18, the Bench firmly establishes, “It is evident from the above that any proceeding leading to an order of termination falls within the scope of ‘conditions of service.’ Furthermore, Section 14 of the Act, conferring jurisdiction over service matters of Army personnel, should be broadly interpreted. This Court has held that an interpretation favoring jurisdiction should prevail over an interpretation curbing jurisdiction.”

With due consideration to the Act’s objective, para 20 adds, “We are also mindful that the Act’s purpose is to provide adjudication of complaints and disputes concerning service matters and not just appeals against Court Martial verdicts. The statement of objects and reasons can serve as a tool for interpretation. Hence, the impugned Tribunal judgment is not deficient in jurisdiction.”

Moving forward, para 21 affirms, “Regarding the charges sought to be framed against the Respondent, we find no fault with the Tribunal’s approach. The Tribunal perused the material on record and concluded that no prima facie case was established against the Respondent. We see no reason to interfere with these findings.”

Finally, the last para 22 concludes, “Accordingly, the Appeal is dismissed.”

To summarize, this landmark judgment by the Apex Court upholds the AFT’s decision with great clarity and commendable insight. It confirms the right of challenging the GCM order before the AFT. The learned counsel, Mr. K Ramesh, rightfully argued that the Tribunal’s jurisdiction should not be restricted on technical grounds, and the GCM convening order.

Argument With respect to jurisdiction and General Court Martial (GCM)

The learned counsel, Mr. K Ramesh, rightfully argued that the Tribunal’s jurisdiction should not be restricted on technical grounds, and the GCM convening order was appropriately set aside. The court wholeheartedly endorsed Mr. K Ramesh’s submission, rejecting the contentions made by Ms. Diksha Rai, the learned counsel representing the Appellant, who alleged a jurisdictional error in the Tribunal’s judgment. There can be no denying the wisdom and soundness of the court’s ruling.

The judgment sets a significant precedent, establishing the legal recourse available to challenge GCM orders before the AFT, thereby ensuring transparency and fairness in the armed forces’ disciplinary proceedings. The court’s eloquent articulation and meticulous analysis leave no room for ambiguity in its conclusions.


In conclusion, the Supreme Court’s decision in the case of Union of India & Ors. Vs. P.S. Gill is a milestone in the jurisprudence of military law. It reaffirms the role of the Armed Forces Tribunal as the forum for addressing service-related grievances and upholds the principle of natural justice. With this landmark ruling, the court has provided clarity on matters of jurisdiction, leaving no doubt about the AFT’s authority to adjudicate appeals against General Court Martial orders.

The legal fraternity and members of the armed forces alike are sure to hail this verdict as a definitive and progressive step towards ensuring fairness and accountability within the military justice system. As this judgment becomes a part of legal history, it serves as a guiding light for future cases and reinforces the ideals of justice and due process in our nation’s armed forces.

It is imperative that stakeholders take cognizance of this seminal ruling and continue to uphold the principles enshrined in the Constitution and other relevant laws to ensure a just and equitable society. In the annals of legal jurisprudence, this judgment will undoubtedly occupy a place of eminence and influence, shaping the course of military justice for generations to come.

The Supreme Court’s decision in the case of Union of India & Ors. Vs. P.S. Gill has far-reaching implications and is likely to have a profound impact on the military legal landscape. This landmark ruling exemplifies the judiciary’s commitment to upholding constitutional principles and ensuring fairness in the administration of justice.

By recognizing the jurisdiction of the Armed Forces Tribunal to entertain appeals against General Court Martial orders, the court has provided a crucial avenue for service members to seek redressal of grievances. This ensures that military personnel have access to an independent and impartial forum to address issues related to their service and disciplinary matters.

The court’s erudite analysis of the relevant provisions of the Armed Forces Tribunal Act, 2007, and the Army Act, 1950, underscores the importance of adhering to the rule of law. The clarity with which the court has expounded on the scope of “service matters” and the Tribunal’s jurisdiction sets a precedent for consistent and equitable adjudication in future cases.

In its meticulous scrutiny of the facts and evidence, the court demonstrates its commitment to ensuring that decisions are based on sound legal principles rather than technicalities. The rejection of the Appellant’s plea on jurisdictional grounds exemplifies the judiciary’s aversion to hyper-technical interpretations that may impede justice.

Moreover, the court’s endorsement of a broad interpretation of Section 14 of the Armed Forces Tribunal Act further bolsters the scope of service matters that can be brought before the Tribunal. This progressive stance by the court empowers service personnel to seek resolution of a wide range of issues concerning their terms of service.

The legal fraternity is bound to appreciate the court’s profound observations on the object and purpose of the Act. By emphasizing that the Act’s aim is not solely limited to appeals against Court Martial verdicts, the court underscores the Tribunal’s role as a comprehensive forum for addressing service-related complaints and disputes.

It is evident from the judgment that the court has deliberated extensively to arrive at a fair and just decision. The scholarly approach of the Bench, led by Justice L Nageswara Rao and Justice Hemant Gupta, reflects their commitment to ensuring the integrity of the judicial process.

As this landmark judgment reverberates through the legal corridors, it serves as a beacon of hope for countless service personnel seeking justice and fairness. The court’s wisdom and sagacity are sure to inspire confidence in the armed forces’ justice system and strengthen the bond of trust between the judiciary and those who serve the nation.

In conclusion, the Supreme Court’s ruling in Union of India & Ors. Vs. P.S. Gill is a testament to the judiciary’s dedication to upholding the rule of law and safeguarding the rights of service members. It sets a commendable precedent for resolving service-related issues through an independent and transparent judicial process.

As we reflect on this seminal judgment, let us celebrate the values it upholds and reaffirm our collective commitment to a just and equitable society. With this landmark ruling, the Supreme Court continues to play a pivotal role in shaping India’s legal landscape and safeguarding the principles enshrined in our Constitution.

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